Son of Henry Maule (1659-1734) of Kelly, and Anne Lindsay Crawfurd (d. 1729). Member of Parliament for Aberdeen Burghs (1739-1748). Appointed Baron of the Exchequer for Scotland in May 1748. Appointed Trustee for encouraging fisheries and manufactures in Scotland in July 1749. He died unmarried in 1781.
Baron Maule's Close in Edinburgh is named after him.
Boswell, in journal notes published in Boswell on the Grand Tour I, writes about himself "[being] a kind of Baron Maule" (July 10, 1764) and an intention of his to "live like Baron Maule". (July 28, 1764).