Son of Christoph, a high-ranking government official (Regierungssekretär) in Dresden, and Rebecca Elisabeth Wächter, daughter of the Mayor of Wurzen.
Kircheisen was educated in the legal profession and also worked for the Prussian diplomacy, before in 1733 being appointed Mayor of Berlin. He held this position until 1746, when he became President of the Berlin City Council (1746-1770) with direct reference to the King.
Boswell was introduced to Kircheisen, described as "a hearty cordial saxon", on July 9, 1764, and, with a recommendation from banker Johann Jacob Schickler, he rented an apartment in Kircheisen's house for the duration of his stay in Berlin.
Boswell quickly came on very good terms with the family, and on July 18, 1764, wrote in his journal that "Herr President embraced me with cordiality and cried, "My dear Englishman, no man ever had a better heart. Your being sent to my house was an act of Providence."